The final conference of the project Connecting Separated was held at the Theater of the City Library in Solin on April 28, 2017
Workshop for tourist boards and associations - Međugorje from 8 to 10 March 2017
The project Connecting Separated and the wider area of Dalmatia and Herzegovina were promoted at the three-day fair of BIT Milano 2017 from 2 to 4 April 2017.
Za zadnji dan festivala očekuje nas otvorenje šetnice na ušću Jadra
Program petog dana festivala u kojem nas očekuje kino projekcija na Tusculumu!
Program i najava trećeg dana festivala
Digital humanities is an emerging field that blurs boundaries between traditional research in humanities and computing. Ranging from heritage presentation in digital media, various scanning techniques (digitalization), to new research methodologies based on GIS or network analyses and visualization, digital humanities casts new light on broad spectrum of knowledge and research paths in humanities. ARIADNE is one of the international digital humanities initiatives in a domain of archeology.
U zaseoku Beriš na Humcu kod Ljubuškog (mikrolokacija Velike stine), terenskim iskapanjima odjela za arheologiju Sveučilišta u Mostaru u travnju 2016. godine otkriveni su ostaci neolitičkog naselja otvorenog tipa. Arheološki potencijal ovog lokaliteta uočen je terenskim pregledom u okviru projekta „Rimska i kasnoantička nalazišta uokolo lokaliteta Gračine; Dokumentacija i nedestruktivne metode istraživanja“ koji se realizirao u suradnji Općine Ljubuški i Poljskog instituta za arheologiju.
Kada govorimo o arheološkom potencijalu bilo kojeg dijela Bosne i Hercegovine, nezaobilazno polazište čini Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine koji je objavljen prije četvrt stoljeća, te predstavlja još uvijek najpotpuniji pregled arheoloških nalazišta na čitavom bosansko-hercegovačkom području i jedina je relevantna kvantifikacija svih potencijala te vrste. Premda bi, ponajprije zbog vremenske distance od prikupljanja podataka do njihovog sistematiziranja i prezentiranja, a potom i vremenske distance od objave do danas, taj pregled danas bilo moguće i znatnije obogatiti, ovaj pregled arheoloških potencijala šireg područja Ljubuškog temeljit će se upravo na podatcima iz Arheološkog leksikona, jer ni uz dodavanje novih nalazišta osnovne činjenice vezane za te potencijale ne bi bile bitno promijenjene.
By creating spatial interventions, we want to encourage creation of new social interactions on the archaeological site in the Municipality of Ljubuški (BiH).The workshop was attended by 20 students of architecture, art academies and archeology from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Dalmatian hinterland, an undiscovered land, is full of cultural and natural attractions. Many of them are located close to the Roman road route Salona-Tilurij-Bigeste-Narona.
Since 1998 the Environment Agency has used lasers to scan and map the English landscape from above to help with work such as flood modelling and tracking changing coastlines.
PELAGIOS stands for 'Pelagios: Enable Linked Ancient Geodata In Open Systems'.
Although it is hard to see it today, in the area of the estuary of the River Jadro in the period from the 1st century BC there was a port of ancient Salona, the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. It occupied the lower course of Jadro and it was surrounded by port facilities: piers, warehouses, shipyards. A lighthouse, built during the governor Dolabela, stood at the entrance. With the fall of Salona, after conflicts with the Avars and Slavs (7th c.), its port was also gone forever. Some parts were still used, especially during the Middle Ages when ships would dock under the remains of the south walls of Salona to take stone from the ruins of the ancient city to build Split, Trogir and Kaštela. During the wars with the Turks, Petar Kružić was bringing help to Klis right across the Solin port, and then in 1537 he literally got stuck in the mud of Rika and was killed there, at the boundary between the Eastern and the Western world. The raising of the sea level, the mud from Jadro, but also the soil from researches of Salona, covered the remains of the former ports. In the 20th century, industry altered the character of the area which played an important role in the life of local people until the 60’s. Construction of a walking trail and the revival of genius loci is the first step in returning the city to its port.
Salona was the largest city and the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, with a continuity of settlements dating from the Bronze Age. It was the port of Illyrian tribe Delmata. In the 1st century B.C. Salona supported Caesar in the war with Pompey, got the status of a colony and became the center of Illyria. City center (Urbs vetus) was fortified with walls and towers. Gates (Porta Caesarea) are well preserved, of which the roads towards the interior of the province were laid down by imperial governor Publius Cornelius Dolabella (14- 20). Salona’s port was formed along the southern walls and at the Jadro estuary. Forum with the Capitolium, theater and temple dates from the 1st century. Necropolises originated outside the city walls along the roads, and aqueduct supplied the city and its thermal spas with water from the source of Jadro. Salona was growing and new walls incorporated amphitheater, a monumental building with a capacity of 15.000 spectators, demolished only in the 17th century during the Venetian-Turkish wars. In the 4th century, old Porta Cesarea was transformed in a triumphal arch depicting the patron of Salona and the abbreviation of the city name MIVSF - Martia Iulia Salona Valeria Felix. Christianity had appeared during the 3rd century and was followed by persecutions under the Roman Emperor Diocletian. City center moved from Forum to the east in the 4th century, when Christian complex with double basilicas, a baptistery and an episcopal palace was raised. Cemeteries Manastirine, Marusinac and Kapljuč developed around large basilica dedicated to Christian martyrs, which were raised on pagan necropolises. The city fell under the Avars and Slavs in 640. During the early Middle Ages (9th - 11th c.), one of the centers of the Croatian principality and kingdom was developed around Salona. The most famous researcher of the site is don Frane Bulic, remembered after Tusculum - the building that incorporated the remains of Salona, placed on Manastirine.
The discovery of Rižnice was made back in 1891 when one Solin peasant, working his land, found a part of an ornamented pediment with the beginning of the inscription PRO DUCE TREPIM...- For Prince Trpimir... Later, the site was researched where they found the remains Roman architecture, church, residential and commercial premises- monastery, cemetery, dating from the ancient times and the Middle Ages. We assume that in Rižinice in 852 Croatian Prince Trpimir, one of the most important Croatian medieval rulers, raised the first Benedictine monastery on the Croatian soil. The complex was built just near a Roman road which led from Salona to Klis where the Prince had his own residence.
The antique villa, dating from the 1st to the 4th/5th century, has undergone numerous alterations. It probably had the sanctuary of Mithras, an Eastern deity popular in the Roman Empire. In the early and late Middle Ages a small church was built on this hill dedicated to St Ilija, and around it a cemetery was formed. On streams that surround the hill mills were built, of which the one on the west side is probably medieval. Little more to the south, another mill is preserved, the so-called Čikalova, as well as the route of a Roman road, one of three roads that were leading from Salona to Klis.
Klis rises on a cliff that closes a narrow passage (Klis door) between rocks of Kozjak and mountain peaks of Mosor. Precisely on that narrowest part, remains of the route of the Roman and medieval road are preserved, as well as "Vetmin most" (Bridge of Vetma) over which once passed "Sinjska rera" - railway connection between Split and Sinj (1903 to 1962). The present fortress is preceded by the Illyrian hillfort and ancient fortification. Croatian princes and kings also recognized the importance of Klis, and built there one of their seats. In 1537, after years of resistance by Petar Kružić, the fortress was taken by the Turks. Most of the present fortress dates to the period of Venetian reconstruction during the 17th and the 18th century. A complex type of fortification consists of three mutually separate forts. Klis Fortress represents one of the best preserved late-medieval and baroque fortification entities both in Croatia and Europe.
Structures of archaeological sites are a habitat for plant and animal species that cannot be found in the same composition in the surroundings. The habitat of the walls stands out with a clear distinction of what can be found on the crowns, vertical surfaces, and in the pedestals. Each of these components has different living conditions and species. In Salona, the crowns of the walls of the Episcopal center, Porta Caesarea, and the supporting walls of the amphitheater are home to many plant species that can be found in the Roman Colosseum as well. Together with ferns, annual and perennial plants, we can also find endemic species of ephedra. Today, there is a significant presence of non-autochthonous plants.
Due to unfavorable survival conditions, steep slopes of Kozjak are a specific habitat for flora and fauna. Only organisms with special adaptations can survive here. Some of the plants that are found in Klis and in the coastal Dinarides range are white Oman, blue Lasinja and white Sijedac (first found in Klis). These species can also be found in the joints of the fortress walls.
Don Frane Bulić discovered the remains of the church and a water tank in the early 20th century. He assumed that the early Christian church developed in an earlier shrine of a local (Illyrian) god Silvanus. Two churches, a water tank and residential and commercial premises (a monastery), tombs and a baptistery were revealed later. The complex was built during the 5th century and is located close to the Roman road, partly presented today. Along the same road, there was a small settlement protected by the fort on the hill Šutanj. The complex was damaged during the war between Ostrogoths and Byzantium in the 6th century. A small graveyard was created on these ruins. Klapavice site is often found on the late medieval and early modern period maps, as next to it the main caravan route to the interior passed.
The place is already mentioned in the Middle Ages, and it was named after the nearby intersection of roads, namely bivium - the place where the Roman road separated. One led to Sinj (Osinium) and Čitluk (Aequum) and the other led to military camp of Gardun (Tilurium). In the large field on the north side of Križice lays Dicmo, whose name originates from the Latin phrase for the tenth milestone from Salona - Ad decimum milliarium. At the site, ruts of Roman wagons are partly visible, and a large water tank as well. In Vučipolje, the remains of Roman residential and farm building and late ancient tomb were explored.
A pass between the hills Trapošnik and Čemernica is one of the places where we can still see the Roman road in its almost original appearance. Although the so-called "Splitski put" (the road of Split) was built across the hill in the 19th century, at the top of the pass the Roman road is still preserved. Importance of this pass was apparently known already in prehistoric times when on top of Trapošnik a fort was built and several stone objects for rites.
In this cemetery three large crosses have been preserved decorated with various reliefs, of which particularly standing out is presentation of a man with a stick as a sign of power and warriors with different weapons. The crosses were probably carved in the late 15th and 16th century. These monuments are still associated with the medieval stećaks and are considered to be the last stage in their development. The present church of St George was built between 1934 and 1937, on the site of an earlier church from the 18th century.
The area around the church is rich in archaeological findings. A small settlement along the Roman road was developed already in the 1st century. In one of the houses an Avar arrow was found, so we assume that the village was destroyed during the Avaro - Slavic invasions in the 7th century. During Late Antiquity and the late Middle Ages a cemetery was developed here. Particularly interesting are the medieval graves under stećaks and large crosses (križine), one of which has a preserved human figure. When the Turks left, the church was repeatedly expanded throughout the 18th century
On the plateau of the village Gardun, above Trilj, a Roman military camp was built in the 1st century. After difficult wars between the Romans and the Delmats, and the great uprising of the Illyrian tribes, Romans decided to build military fortifications in the Dalmatian hinterland. This is how Burnum (Ivoševci by Kistanje), Tilurium (Gardun by Trilj) and small military strongholds in Andetrij (Muć) and Bigeste (Humac by Ljubuški in BiH) were cretaed. The army guarded a very important road Salona - Narona, controlled the hinterland of Salona as the capital of the province and controlled the bridge on the River Cetina (Hippus) in Trilj (Pons Tiluri). Only the smaller parts of the camp are explored: bedroom, the command building with a mosaic depicting the bull (symbol of the VII legion), a water tank, and parts of the walls. Movable archaeological finds can be seenat the Museum of Trilj Region in Trilj. In late antiquity, Tilurium was a strategic point from which the approach to Salona was defended. It regained its importance during the last Venetian-Turkish wars (17th/18th c.), when the Venetians, in the area around the today's church of St Peter, built a small fort to control the passage across Cetina and the surrounding territory.
The river rises from five karst springs in a dark lake. The name probably comes from Phrygian word
s for door s, matching the description of the estuary of Cetina, which has opened its passage to the sea by breaking through the rock massif of Dinara Mountain in Omiš. The most impressive is a deep canyon from Trilj to Zadvarje, where Cetina shows its power by the roar of waterfalls named Large and Small Gubavica. The place where the Roman road used to cross the river was located near the present bridge, and it certainly looked different than today because the river had a more natural coastline.
The parish church has some unusual appearance and history. It was built in the shape of a Latin cross with a dome in the middle, and it got this look only after 1924. In the summer of 1898 it was hit by a very strong earthquake. The new one was partly built of stone from the old demolished church and preserves a valuable piece of art - a gothic silver crucifix from the women's Benedictine monastery of St Maria de Taurello in Split, closed in the 19th century.
The route of the Roman road in its appearance can be visible here. During the Middle Ages cemeteries with tombstones were developed along it. Nearly 150 stećaks are preserved. We can distinguish slabs, coffins, gabled ones and crosses. They were placed along the roads around churches, near wells and ponds, in the prehistoric tumuli and high ruins. Especially typical are their reliefs with different scenes - from crosses, the new moon and the stars, lilies, to scenes of hunting, battles, tournaments, round dance, etc. Important is the appearance of inscriptions on some tombstones from which we learn about the deceased, their family, the maker/sculptor (the so-called blacksmith) and about the compiler of the inscription itself (dijak). On the road from Budimiri to Cista there are numerous wells and water tanks (Smrdelj, Pištet, Rivina, Zadužbina, Crljivica). Roman roads and of all subsequent communications followed the wells, ponds and various sources of water, particularly in those areas where it was harder to get to water.
Zadužbina is a shallow swallow hole with a well. The name of the site denotes legacy of an individual for the common good. Cemetery with stećaks was created at the northern edge of a swallow hole during the 14th and the 15th century. Several decorated stećaks have been preserved up to today which, according to their reliefs are related to stećaks in the area. Particularly interesting are ones with the hollows carved in the shape of a cross.
Gradina is a prehistoric fortification that originates from the Iron Age, bounded by walls and a steep cliff on the south. It controls the ancient path that is still being used, leading from the valley of Cetina towards east. The ancient settlement (Tronum) was situated on the area of today’s new cemetery, as well as on the southern positions Aptovac and Crkvine. St Jacob church was built in 1888 on the same position where used to be earlier a church from the 18th century. Even that church was probably constructed on the same position where used to a medieval church, along which developed a cemetery with stećaks. There are two valuable wooden altars from the family Rako workshop.
The site is one of the most important and the most stratified, systematically explored and presented archaeological sites in Dalmatia. Life in "Crkvine" starts during the Chalcolithic and the early Bronze Age; it commences properly around the karst valley with a sinkhole on the bottom. The first constructions on this area, commercial and residential objects with water tanks, were built by the Romans close to the Roman road, the section of the travel station Tronum/Trono that is mentioned in the ancient itineraries. In the 5th century a basilica with apse and the first phase of cross-shaped baptistery were built. After its demolition, on the same position arose a smaller church with the chapel. The baptistery was than modified and incorporated by the church with three konhas (niches) later in the 6th century. Life in "Crkvine" probably ceases during the Avar-Slavic intrusions. However, in the course of the 8th /9th century, within the remains of the Early Christian architecture two little early-medieval churches were built. After the 10th century this place was abandoned; the church and the cemetery were probably built closer to the road, around the present church of Saint Jacob. Simultaneously with the construction of the churches, there used to grow the cemeteries around them. Almost 60 different burials were explored, together with jewelry, money, tools, glass, a bone comb, spurs…
Crkvine is situated on the borders of the road, which represent an ideal shelter for the plants in the rural parts of Dalmatia. The common ones found near the road are hard to classify as they consist of many important groups of ruderal species that are byproducts of human activities. One of the most common plants along the Mediterranean part of the ancient Roman road route is Psoralea bituminosa, a vetch whose odor recalls that of bitumen. One of its main characteristics is the accumulation of heavy metals from the ground, and hence the name - hiperacumulator.
With around 100 stećaks, among which more than 50 are decorated, this site is one of 10 most significant archaeological sites in Croatia. Three tumuli from the Bronze Age represent the oldest part (so-called Velika and Mala Crljivica). Their development is related to a nearby prehistoric settlement on "Čelanova gradina" or "Griva". At the beginning of the 1st century Roman legions built the first road on this area, as a part of the significant main road that passes through the continental part of the eastern coast of Adriatic and connects Aquileia (Italy) with Dyrrhachium (Drač in Albania). During the Middle Ages, a cemetery with stećaks was developed. The repertoire is characteristic for this area: crosses in all their forms, anthropomorphic lilies, hunting scenes, scenes of people dancing in the circle, scenes of duels, various vegetable motifs, new moon and stars, arms, hemispheres etc. Among the ridged tombstones there can be noticed those of Dalmatian typology, with a marked "roof". Similar to these can be found in the area of Cetina and Imotski as well as in the neighboring areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some belong to a famous workshop of the blacksmith Jurina from the mid-15th century, or they are created under its influence. They can be recognized by the characteristically big lilies, arcades, warriors, and horsemen. On two stećaks there are partially preserved inscriptions written in Bosnian Cyrillic. Southwards from the so-called Velika Crljivica there is a valley with seven wells.
The oak trees, which can be found on the site, are an important indicator of the climatic demarcation between the regions of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean. Romans attributed the oak to Jupiter, and in the contemporary classification of the vegetation it serves as a demarcation for the whole area: the holm oak grows in the Mediterranean, while the pubescent oak grows in the sub-Mediterranean zone. According to Pliny the Elder, the definition of the Mediterranean was pretty simple – the area where the olive trees grow. However, today we define it as a zone of broadleaf evergreen forests. The holm oak is an evergreen tree, while the pubescent oak loses its leaves in the autumn. There are around 600 oak species in the world, and 14 of them are wild grown in Croatia.
The church was built in 1914 and preserves three wooden altars from the workshops from Tirol. Carved wooden altars and statues made by the artisans from Tirol were popular in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century in Croatia. While the sculptures are rather frequent in the churches of continental Dalmatia, the altars can be found more rarely because at the same time a local altars workshop of the family Rako operated in Imotski.
The old parish church with the cemetery was probably built on the site of an early medieval church that used to have a cemetery with stećaks (medieval tombstones) around it. One stećak is still preserved in the chapel, and it used to serve as an external altar. The church got its current form in the mid-18th century, and it has a tower bell with the bell from 1725. On the prominent hill with the cross, there are the remains of a prehistoric fortification and a fortress with the well-preserved bulwarks, the entry, and the tower on the top. The new parish church was built in 1936/37. Its main altar with the baroque statues of St. Thomas the Apostle and St. Pope Sylvester used to stand in the church of St. Thomas in Zadar, which does not exist nowadays. Side altars are transferred from the Church of Our Lady of Good Health in Split.
In the 15th century here developed a cemetery with stećaks, one of the numerous medieval cemeteries along the Roman road Salona-Bigeste-Narona. Around 20 tombstones (panels, coffins, and ridged tombstones) and a big cross can be seen today. Almost all copies are decorated with characteristic reliefs: rosette-stars, new Moon, crosses, spirals, and tendrils, human figures in a circle, scenes with hunters, horsemen, and deer. On the pedestal of the biggest rigged tombstone there is an inscription written in the Bosnian Cyrillic, stating that this "bilig" (stećak) was made by a "blacksmith" Jurina.
Beech forest is preserved at the hinterland side of the mountain Biokovo. The evergreen belt of pine and olive trees stands out, as well as that of the pubescent oaks and hornbeams placed nearby the rocks. This is important because elsewhere, Biokovo is not so rich with vegetation. However, its altitude belt is known for tertiary relics such as portenšlagov’s bellflower and dwarf bells. Flora of Biokovo has attracted famous researchers such as Roberto Visiani from Šibenik, the head of the famous Botanical Garden of the University of Padua. In 1838 the Saxon King Friedrich August climbed it and engraved his monogram in one of the beeches.
"Blato (mud)" stands for the lake covered with water through a great part of the year, while for the rest of the year it is dry or there is wetland. Blato is a habitat and a hatchery of several fish species, as well as home for many birds (herons, grebes, ducks, predatory birds...). Roman and modern road overlap on the area of Berinovci, where it might have been situated the ancient Bilubium/Bilubio, one of the settlements known by its ancient name. On the steep and difficultly reachable hill "Grad", a Roman and medieval settlement are situated. Both of them were probably used as a shelter (refuge, asylum) during the times of danger. Above the lake Galipovac there is a big group of prehistoric tumuli – ancient tombs from the Bronze Age; and above sinkhole Vrbina there is a prehistoric hillfort and the medieval cemetery with stećaks. In the middle of Blato there is the island called Manastir with the remains of the Fransciscan monastery and a little church, abandoned by the monks during the Turkish times.
Together with Lake Baikal, Prološko blato and the western part of the spatial Imotski field are the most diverse hydrological phenomena on Earth. Among the numerus karst lakes, the Blue and Red, Dva Oka, Prološko lake, Galipovac, Knezović lake, Provalija, Krenica, Jezerina and Lokvičić lake stand out. The area of River Vrljika source (50 ha) and its riverbed until Kamenmost are protected as ichthyologic preserve of the endemic Adriatic trout since 1971. This is endemic specie of rivers of the south Adriatic basin - present in Jadro and Neretva as well. The youngest natural lake of Imotski region, Bućuša, was created in 2004 after the collapse of the southwestern part of the Imotski field in the municipality of Lokvičići. Thus, this entire karst region is still intensely geologically pulsating!
The church on this position was mentioned during the Ottoman reign in the 16th century, and existing one derives from the 18th century. Interestingly, the walls in the lower part were constructed with the use of decorated stećaks. In the Ottoman period the church was also used as a fortress, as it can be witnessed by the loopholes. Kamenmost was named after the stone bridge over the river Vrljika. The first stone bridge on this site was built by the Romans in the 1st century. In the Middle Ages, along the road leading towards the bridge, a cemetery with stećaks was formed. Later, along Vrljika several mills were constructed, among which "Markičuša" and Patrljeva mill by the bridge are of a great relevance.
Archaeological site "Crkvine" under the hill Dikovača has been known since the 19th century. The complex of three-nave basilica and two baptisteries derives from the 5th and lasted until the 7th century. The site itself is much bigger and it has more layers in comparison to the part that was explored, and it is important for understanding the ancient history of this area. In the vicinity of Imotski are situated several Roman settlements, among which the names of the two are known from itineraries and maps – Bilubium/Bilubio and Novae/Ad Novas. The last one mentioned was used to use the church on Dikovača. On the hill south of the road, there is the All Saints parish church built in 1895, with a precious main wooden altar, made by the well-known woodcarving workshops in Tirol.
One of the Roman settlements in Imotski field known by name, municipality of Novae/Ad Novas, was located on the hill around the parish church. The status of municipality meant it had sort of an individual administration. Unfortunately the archaeological research has never been carried out; therefore there is no information about that Roman town. In its vicinity, probably along the road itself, there used to be the station of beneficarii consulares- the officials in the province governor's office; frequently the soldiers that used to cover the functions related to the maintenance of the public order and peace. Today's parish church Our Lady Of Mount Carmel was built in 1869. Besides the valuable altairs inside the church, here can also be noticed one of the bells from 1757.
Throughout the history the major part of the field of Imotski was not inhabited. Illyrian fort hills, Roman settlements with villas, late antique fortress and medieval churches are mostly found on the slopes and edges of the field. The road from Salona to Narona used to access the field from the south-western side and it used to go down towards Runovići across the village Drum (Tur. the road). To prevent the flooding, a drainage channels system was developed. There are numerous mills and stone bridges, the most notable is the estate of family Franceschi from Omiš with gardens and 14 mills. In 1717 a border between the Venetian Republic and the Ottoman Empire was drawn here. A part of the old Imota, including the part of the field, ended up on the other side of the border, and in Herzegovina even today it is called "Bekija" (Tur. the rest). The Austrian government allows, and afterwards encourages the cultivation of tobacco around the field and on it. For that reason, between 1887 and 1911 the first and the biggest tobacco station in Dalmatia was built in Imotski. Unfortunately, there hasn't been any tobacco for the last 30 years. A drainage tunnel near the abyss of river Vrljika contributed to the vine cultivation, in particular that of the local type of the white grapes named tvrdac or kujundžuša. Vrljika flows through the field, and it is one of the most interesting and the most preserved rivers in Dalmatia that changes its name for five times. In the lower stream it is called Matica, in Drinovci (BiH) it flows under the ground only to erupt as Tihaljina in Peć Mlini. On its way to the mouth of the Neretva river it changes its name twice more, firstly being called Mlada and then Trebižat.
The intensification of agriculture has led to the reduction and vulnerability of certain plant species. About two hundred varieties of different cultivars are present - olives, vines, fruits, and aromatic, medicinal, honey and decorative plants. One of the oldest sorts in Dalmatia is olive, but there are also the cherries, tangerines, marascas, figs and almonds. Grapevine is referred to as the main Mediterranean agricultural sort, and we assume that already the Illyrians had developed viticulture. Traditional varieties of vegetables are highly endangered, such as the local collard, Dalmatian kopica endive, Dalmatian salad, the local bean etc. Crop farming is declining, although it has been of great importance since the Neolithic. Changes in vegetation were caused by the abandonment of cattle breeding that had previously produced a large number of pastures and meadows. Today, due to the disappearance of cattle and depopulation, these types of habitats are disappearing. One of the weeds that are losing the battle with the modern agriculture is cockle. In Roman times, the passengers would have carried it as a gift, and today it is on the list of endangered and protected species in most European countries.
In the mid-19th century, stone customs house was built around 400 meters from the Ottoman-Venetian border in Imotsko-bekijsko field. It has the ground floor and the first floor, several loopholes, and it used to be girded by a high wall made of stones with the loopholes on it. There were planted two cedars which are rather tall today. According to the sayings by the inhabitants, close to đumrukana there are the objects intended for the accommodation of the soldiers (askeri), livery stable, and the powder magazine.
The permanent collection of Archaeological collection consists of the exhibits that were found in the course of the archaeological research of the site of Šamatorje, Grabarje and Grotuša, and also of other singular finds revealed on the area of Gorica and Sovići. The oldest finds belong to the Early Stone Age (Neolithic) and they originate from the Ravlić cave in Drinovci and from the hill of Pit. Under the St Stephan church there were discovered the foundations of the Early Christian basilica with the baptistery, dating from the 5th and 6th century. Decorative stone fragments from the Pre-Romanesque period are a basis for realistic assumption that an Early Croatian church (whose remains have never been found) was built on its foundation. Several Early Croatian graves were found, containing earrings, rings, spurs, little knives… In the 14th and the 15th century there used to be a big graveyard of biligs, and the greatest part of it was built inside the foundations of the church, while some of them can be seen even today among the new graves. The area has preserved the sacral and sepulchral continuity from the prehistory until today.
Krenica is located in Imotsko-bekijsko field. A legend about Gavan’s treasure says that the woman of a rich man refused to give a piece of bread to St Peter, who was disguised as a beggar. Her blasphemy created an earthquake, and a lake was formed on the place where used to be his palace. Running from the water, Gavan’s wife dropped her son and thus created the gulf and the channel of Matica River. Lakes were formed wherever Gavan had palaces, including the Red and Blue Lake in Imotski.
Ravlić cave is found in the ancient settlement of Peć, above the source of the River Tihaljina. Local people call it also the cave of Kostreš-harambaša or the Cave of Kostreš, after the legendary leader of brigands, Kostreš, who was a terror to Ottomans. Geologists believe that in the ancient history the cave used to be a source, which ceased to exist when the erosion line had fallen down. The cave is very spacious and it has two galleries. Its walls and ceilings are partially intersected with the stone decorations – stalactites and stalagmites, and on the floor there are wonderful stone hollows. Ravlić cave in Peć Mlina in Drinovci is known as the most important prehistoric site in Herzegovina, where people used to live continuously from the beginning of the Neolithic (5700 BC) until the early Bronze Age (1500 BC).
River Tihaljina rises in Peć, a settlement with seven watermills in which the cloth was produced, and for that reason it is known under the name Peć-Mlini . Reddish limestone cliffs over the spring are called Cvitanjske stones. According to a legend, Cvitan was uncontrollably taking the honey out of the rocks, and after the warning of the fairies he plunged to death. Here, you can find a refuge of bees and pigeons, therefore the area was called Čelinja or Čelinka (after the bees).
The source springs from the flat surface and flows into the River Tihaljina. According to a legend, the spring has emerged 200 to 250 years ago, and it was formed by an earthquake. By its yield, it is one of the strongest sources in Europe (third in BiH). River Trebižat currently draws water from the sources Klokun, Sedra, Vrioštica, Studenčica...
Stone chapel and cemetery are located on the top of a craggy hill named Crkvina, with a stunning view of the field of Vitina and Ljubuški. Around the old oak tree there was built a stone wall within which there are parts of biligs, among which some were embedded in the chapel and the others are scattered along the slope. At the moment there can be seen 15 exemplars of biligs. Even the chapel itself is built on the remains of a prehistoric stone accumulation, so it can be said that the continuity of cemetery on Crkvine has lasted from the prehistory until today.
On a little hill there is a graveyard with five exemplars of the medieval biligs in a shape of well-elaborated plates. All the exemplars are decorated with twining vine with trefoil, rosettes, and shield with a sword.
On the site were found the remains of the Early Christian church, a twofold vaulted tomb, the basis of the altar, the baptismal font, a tomb in the central room and two tombs from the period of Late Antiquity. The central tomb has the entrance architecture performed in the opus mixtum technique (an altering use of bricks and stone blocks), which was popular in the architecture of the Roman Empire. A capital with the motif of the cross and a peacock was found, which can be classified, due to its characteristics, as a product of the Narona workshops from the 5th -6th century. On the position Šipkova glavica was found a little single-nave church (oratory), a part of the architectonic decoration of the altar, and a Late Antiquity tomb. Under it there are two graves made of an older ancient object. It seems that the oratory used to be located within a much greater late antiquity complex.
The Early Christian Basilica on the site of Župnica used to have three longitudinal rooms, the presbytery with the apse, and in the side room on the left poorly preserved baptismal font (piscina) was found, as well as a bricked tomb with the bones. In the foundations were excavated many stone fragments. The finding of an Avar arrow indicates the possibility that the demolition of the basilica occurred during the invasions of Avars. The remains are in a bad condition.
The waterfall is located on the river Mlade, which changes its name to Trebižat in the downstream. The height of the waterfall is 5, and the length is 50 meters. There are the mills nearby, some of them are still in function. Koćuša has rather weak fluctuations in the amounts of water such as the waterfall Kravica, but during the winter it often shows its destructive force. The natural attractions are sedimentary rocks - travertine.
In the vicinity of the bridge over the River Mlada, construction remains from the Roman period were noticed in the 19th century. The remains of the tiles and ceramics are a basis for thesis that Roman farm (villa rustica) was located here. In the Saint Ilija chapel a Roman headstone is built in as a lintel, containing the name of the decedent Lucius Marcilius, a veteran of the 7th legion. Around the chapel there is even nowadays a graveyard of biligs, among which some of them are richly decorated with the motif of vine, arcades, shields and crosses. Only few of them can be noticed above the ground - some of them are built in the little church behind the chapel, and some were drowned into the land. There are in total 25 biligs: 13 headstones, 10 chests, one dual plate, and one gabled tombstone. Among them there are also the ancient spolias.
The village was mentioned for the first time in 1395 in the letter of the Bosnian king. In the 17th century the bishop from Makarska Lišnjić mentions the church as a ruin. A wooden hut used to serve as a church for decades, with a belfry on the oak tree. A new modern church of Saint Elijah the Prophet was built in 1958, and in the garden there is a bronze statue of Saint Elijah. Inside the church there are stained-glass windows, rosette on the facade of the church and a big mosaic of Our Lady of Health. The parish of Veljaci possesses a valuable Parish register of the baptized.
The parish church was built in the period between 1910 and 1914 and modeled on an old Franciscan church in Mostar. The interior and the yard were completed by Father Augustin Matić in 1929. An earthquake in 1962 damaged the church, which was then renovated in following decades. The patron of the parish is St Pascal of Bajlon who is, in all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, celebrated only in the parish of Vitina.
Source of River Vrioštica, under the cliffs of Zelengora, emerges from the cave and is used for the water supply of one part of the municipality of Ljubuški. Close to the source were built artificial lake, park with channels, bridges and trails. Natural values of the river have been protected since 1965.
In the 19th century the remains of a Roman building complex on an area of four hectares was discovered. Excavated movable finds, i.e. lots of pottery fragments, bricks and tiles, agricultural implements, jewelry and coins, belong mostly to the emperors from the 2nd to the 4th century. Two epitaphs, a milestone from the 3rd century, and a well made of hewn stones were also found at the site. Next to Dračevica, in the direction of Humac, stretches almost a straight line field path, four meters wide, which is probably the rest of the route of a Roman road Salona - Narona. Roman roads researcher in the province of Dalmatia, Ivo Bojanovski, identified at Dračevica a travel stop Bigeste. However, the prevailing opinion is that the building at Dračevica is villa rustica.
Ljubuški Old Town is located on the eastern ridge of the hill Buturovica. A walking mountain trail leads to the city from Gožulj, on the southern side. On the northern side a macadam road was built. The basis of the old town's built complex has the shape of an irregular polygon. It is assumed that the oldest part of the city, the central tower, was built in the 14th or 15th century. The name of the tower is Herceguša, after the Duke (“herceg“) Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, however, the question of its builder still remains controversial. An interesting legend is related to Ljubuški Old Town, telling the story of a war between a father and a son for a woman. The city fell in the hands of the Ottomans sometime before 1477, when it became a border fortress with a strong crew. In the 17th century Ljubuški became the seat of kadiluk, and in the 18th century a military and administrative district called kapetanija. It had its defensive role until 1835, when they abolished kapetanijas. After that it began to deteriorate rapidly under Austro-Hungarian Empire. Since this is the only fortified medieval town on the right bank of the River Neretva, it was declared a national cultural monument.
Franciscan monastery Humac-Ljubuški is home to the archaeological collection popularly known as Muzej Humac (Humac Museum). It was founded in 1884, four years before the National Museum in Sarajevo. The collection contains a large number of exhibits from Herzegovina, from the Neolithic period to the Middle Ages, in a variety of materials: stone, bronze, copper, iron, silver, gold, ceramics, glass and wood. The area of Ljubuški in Herzegovina abounds mostly in remains of Roman culture. Among other things, 74 stone inscriptions were discovered, most of which are military tombstones. They were sometimes commissioned from famous workshops in Tilurium (today's Trilj) and Narona (Vid near Metković). Most tombstones were found in Hardomilj, which is probably where a military cemetery was located. Villages by the road Salona – Bigeste – Narona, such as Radišići, Proboj and Vitina, are rich in movable finds. The museum collection of the Franciscan monastery in Humac accommodates the Humac Plate, one of the oldest and most important Cyrillic monuments in BiH. The inscription tells us about the construction of the church of St. Michael the Archangel, whose remains have not yet been found. Tit was written by a poorly literate stonemason, applying a spiral way of writing. Another valuable monument is a Pre-Romanesque stone plate (Plate from Ljubuški), with a carved floral interlace motif.
Franciscan monks from Herzegovina founded the monastery library in 1867. Today, it has more than 20 000 books. Rarities of the Humac library include Greek and Roman classics (Homer's Odyssey printed in 1533, Iliad printed in 1537). As part of the Franciscan monastery in Humac, an art collection called Mother was opened, containing around 250 works of art. About forty sculptors and twenty painters from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina are represented, two sculptors from Slovenia, a Russian painter Alexander Zvyagin, and several sculptors and painters from Congo. Ivan Meštrović, Antun Augustinčić, Frano Kršinić and Zlatko Prica are the most famous Croatian sculptors whose artworks can be found in the collection.
When in AD 9 they broke the resistance of the militant Illyrians, Delmatae and Pannonians, the Romans began to build roads, bridges and forts. One of the small military camps, which could accommodate a cohort of four hundred soldiers and a hundred horsemen, was situated in the area of Ljubuški. It is assumed that the camp was located at the site of Gračine in Humac. According to numismatic, metal and ceramic finds it was built in the 1st century, probably during the reign of Tiberius, when the road Salona – Narona was completed. Its role was primarily strategic and defensive – to protect the valley of the River Neretva and the area of the colony Narona from the intrusion of the Illyrian peoples from the hinterland. Only one part of the Roman complex was examined in an area of 2350 square meters. Material for the construction of the walls comes from the nearby quarries in Bijača, Hardomilij and Crveni Grm. The central part of the complex was the baths, mainly used by the military and civilian elite. Near the camp there were a lot of accompanying craftsmen - blacksmiths, hairdressers, shoemakers, stonemasons, gunsmiths, and probably a military brothel. In the complex itself several fragments of tiles with stamps of military units were found, so it is assumed that the legions and cohorts made roof tiles and bricks for construction in furnaces. In the area of Ljubuški several tombstones of Roman veterans and soldiers were found. There is a doubt whether what was excavated at Gračine is a Roman military camp or an ancillary part of a military complex with baths and craftsmen's workshops and dwellings. The site is included in the list of monuments of national interest. The value of the property at Gračine lies in the fact that this is the only partially explored Roman military complex in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Waterfall height of 26 to 28 meters was created by River Trebižat. The water amphitheater has a diameter of 120 m, and it has been under protection as a natural rarity since 1954. Limestone layer is covered with grass, moss and lichen, and nearby there are poplar trees, chaste trees and figs. The water has created a natural phenomenon of limestone travertine and dark travertine moss. River Trebižat is the poor in fish, and in the River Studenčica there are trouts, eels, carps and tenches. Communities of bushy and thorny plants, forming the brush, are predominant ones.
The vast majority was displaced during the construction of the road in 1928-1931, so only few of them are in situ. Regarding their forms, most of them are chest-shaped (16) and slab-shaped (12), whilst two are gabled. Twelve medieval tombstones biligs were decorated with motifs of borders, crosses, lilies, shields with swords, birds, wheel and human figures. This medieval cemetery was also mentioned under the name of Black Cemetery. Near Cooperative House, at the site Pržine, there is a small group of biligs - three chests and a slab. Among them a slab stands out with motifs of a deer hunt, a shield with a sword, a female figure, a rosette, a relief ring and new moon.
Bilig, kamics, stećak or mramorov are medieval tombstones appearing first in the 13th century, whose use and development culminated in the 14th and 15th century. Around seventy thousand biligs are known, of which 86 per cent in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest in Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. Most numerous grave sites of biligs are located in Herzegovina. Ornaments and symbols on biligs, seen in six thousand copies, attract the greatest attention. Inscriptions on biligs hide many secrets of ancient stonemasons and scribes. No inscription has a wording which might indicate heretical teachings. At the site Dilić there are now 35 biligs. One part was built into a nearby road in 1931, and 11 copies are found in the drystone wall by the road. Seventeen biligs are decorated and probably belonged to lower aristocracy. The site was proclaimed a national cultural monument and is also on the candidate list to be nominated a world heritage site by UNESCO.
Rotna gomila site is located next to the road Zvirići – Prud. It was damaged in the width of ten meters during the construction of the road. C. Patsch states that in his time gomila had a volume of 120 steps and a height of six meters, while the Archaeological Lexicon of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicates a diameter of 30 m and a height of 4 m. Its dimensions today are smaller. A tombstone is visible, next to which a fragment of atypical prehistoric pottery was found. Most researchers mention it as a landmark by the Roman road Salona - Narona. Rotna means by oath, which indicates that the locals would meet next to gomila and approved decisions of local leaders by taking an oath.
The remains of the second largest city of the ancient Dalmatia - Coloniae Iulia Naronae are found in the area of the village of Vid near Metković. Life of the settlement dates back even earlier due to trade and the possibility of sailing along the old watercourse of Neretva River (Naron). During the wars with Illyrians, Romans conquered the city and used it as a military camp and a foothold to the interior. Unfortunately, we know very little about the Narona. We can see walls with square towers and Erešova tower from the 19th century, in which a large number of Roman inscriptions and architectural parts were built into. Narona had a theater, baths, and Lieber temple. British archaeologist Arthur Evans bought the heads of Empress Livia (wife of Emperor Augustus) and god Hermes in 1878., which are now placed in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Together with the head of Emperor Vespasian, they were the basis of the assumption that Augusteum - a temple dedicated to the divine Augustus and his successors, was placed on the forum. Confirmation of the thesis came in 1995 and 1996 when 17 marble statues of Roman emperors and members of the imperial family were found, making this one of the most significant archaeological findings in Europe ever. The temple was built in the 1st century, probably during Dolabela’s management of Dalmatia, and it was destroyed during the 4th or 5th century. In 2007 the first archaeological museum in situ in Croatia was opened on its remains. On the opposite side of the river Norin there is a Church of St. Vid, a focal point from which Christianity spread to the interior of the province in the 5th century. Narona fell in the 7th century under the Avar-Slav invasions. The Roman road approached the city from the direction of Prud, followed by necropolis. Today, it is either flooded or under the asphalt.
On the delta of Neretva River 8000 years ago there was a bay that was formed due to the rise of sea level. It probably used to spread up to today’s city of Čapljina (BiH). Neretva mostly flows through Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it drains into the Adriatic Sea southwards from the city of Ploče. It is about 218 km long, out of which about 22 km pass through Croatia. Since 1993 Croatian part of the delta has been listed as internationally important wetland (Ramsar List). It is also nationally protected as a nature park. Neretva valley in Croatia and the upstream part in BiH form a unique ecological circuit. Delta consists of lakes and channels, and without human influence it would have been composed of poplar forests and underbrush. Twenty Illyrian-Adriatic endemic plants can be found on the area.
The basis for construction of industrial and transport infrastructure was created by filling its wetlands in order to fight malaria. Lower course of Jadro was regulated by concrete membranes and only at the estuary can we find the micro-location of coastal vegetation with sea sedge and cane.
Solin, the youngest town in Croatia as far as the age of the population is concerned, family and child friendly city with 24.125 inhabitants, is situated near the estuary of the river Jadro, in the middle part of the central Dalmatia, 3 kilometers north-east from Split. Kastela, Trogir and Klis are situated nearby. The City of Solin is located at the intersection of major road routes and close to the highway and the airport.
Klis is a village and municipality in the hinterland of Split. It arosed at the foot of the medieval fortress and it is considered as a "key" of Dalmatia and Dalmatian hinterland. It aims to become the central axis of the tourist promotion of the Dalmatian hinterland. In addition to the fort, Klis is known for its historical troop "Kliški uskoci", who continuously act on preserving tradition by taking care of historical uniforms and weapons, and organizing events that aim at the reconstruction of Uskok battle for Klis as well. The tourist offer is based on culture, walking trails, cycling and climbing, but also on the famous gastronomy.
Photo taken from: http://www.kliskiuskoci.hr/
Dugopolje is a municipality located in the gateway of the Dalmatian hinterland, 15 kilometers away from Split, the county center and the largest Croatian coastal town. It has an ideal geographic position since it is located at the intersection of the country's A1 freeway Zagreb – Split – Dubrovnik which connects northern and southern Croatia, as well as the county highway D1 Split – Sinj which connects the coast to the central Dalmatian hinterland. Dugopolje is located at the Split exit of the A1 freeway, 28 kilometers from the Split - Kaštela International Airport and 18 kilometers from both the Split ferry port and train station. Central Dalmatia's most attractive destinations (Trogir, Omiš, Makarska Riviera) are only a 30 – 45 minute car ride depending on traffic, and at approximately the same distance lay the pearls of the Dalmatian hinterland and the Cetina region - the cities of Sinj, Trilj and Vrlika.
Imotska krajina is a historical name for an area situated in the hinterland of the mountain Biokovo massif. In the past it also included the part bordering with Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the current demarcation originated with the peace Treaty of Passarowitz, which ended the conflicts between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire during the Second Morean War between 1714 and 1718.
The fertile Imotsko polje (field) has had a key role in the life of this area. In between its almost flat surface and the mountain Biokovo massif (1762 m) there is a spacious karst area with a series of alternating hills and bays. The field and the karst area in its immediate vicinity abound in water. The Vrljika River flows alongside the entire field, and Prološko blato (mud) in its north-western part becomes a floodplain area during the cold season of the year. Thanks to them the field offers excellent conditions for agriculture. Several karst lakes for which Imotska krajina is well-known are situated in the karst area north of the field.